Talking about life insurance can be a touchy subject. It's like sitting down with a lawyer to organize your will—it's uncomfortable, something you don't want to think about or do, but it's necessary. Life insurance is weird in the fact it’s not there to help you directly but to provide for your loved ones in the unfortunate event you pass away.
This post aims to simplify your decision on what life insurance to get. But before you decide, it's crucial to understand the two common types of life insurance: term and whole life insurance. We'll discuss what life insurance entails, the two common types, and their differences. Let's start with a quick overview:
What is life insurance?
Life insurance is a contract between the insurance company and the policyholder stating that while the policy is active, in the event of the insured's death, the appointed beneficiaries will receive payouts or a tax-free death benefit in exchange for a premium—money paid monthly, annually, or all upfront. The death benefit covers an array of expenses and debts, including:
- Funeral costs or any related end-of-life expenses
- Bills and mortgages
- Child care
- College tuition
- Medical expenses
- Consumer debt
Note: Beneficiaries aren’t required to use the funds towards end-of-life expenses.
Life insurance doesn't cover suicide or fraud. If the insurance company finds out you committed insurance fraud, they can withhold your death benefit.
What is Term Life Insurance?
Term life is a policy that lasts for a specific period at a fixed rate of premiums. Usually, coverage is for 10-30 years, sometimes 40 years, depending on the insurance company and your circumstances. Once the policy expires, you can convert it to a permanent policy, renew it, or let it run out. If you decide to get more coverage after expiration, the conditions and rates will likely change as your risk factors increase.
The downside to term life is if the person lives beyond the policy term, there's no death benefit paid out, and you essentially spend all that money for “nothing.” So why get it at all? For peace of mind. Plus, it’s better to be safe than sorry! Don't you agree?! I know your pockets won’t, but if we made all decisions based on money…, never mind. Let's continue. Another potential drawback is there’s no investment or cash value feature; it's solely for financial support to beneficiaries. The upside is it's more affordable, and most people choose this option for ease and price. Most agents recommend a term policy that would expire around your retirement age.
What is Whole Life Insurance?
As you'd guess, whole life insurance is a policy for the entirety of the insured's life. The policy stays in effect until the insured person dies or fails to pay the premiums. In addition to the guaranteed death benefit, this policy comes with a cash value. The policy earns interest over time and can be accessed while alive. You can take out loans or withdraw from the policy, usually tax-free. However, failure to repay loans on time lowers the death benefit by the loan amount.
One thing to know: life insurance shouldn't be your entire investment strategy. There are better options for higher returns. While it shouldn't be the sole strategy, it can diversify a portfolio. But don't put all your eggs in this one investment basket.
The downside of whole life insurance is it's 5-6 times as expensive as term insurance and continues until you die unless you choose a plan to pay it up early. While a guaranteed payout is nice, you will pay more for it.
Whole Life Insurance vs Term Life Insurance
The difference between both policies comes down to cost, coverage, and payout.
Term life policies last for a period, while whole life insurance is a lifetime policy.
Term life is more affordable than whole life insurance because the risk for insurers is lower with a short-term policy. They're able to charge lower premiums.
Whole life insurance includes cash value and investment components, whereas term life insurance doesn't.
Choosing the Right Policy for You
There are many considerations for choosing between term and whole life insurance, for instance, being a single parent, where term life may suffice until the child reaches adulthood. If you've recently married or bought a house, term life might be suitable. Whole life insurance could be an option if you're caring for aging parents or someone with a disability. However, financial considerations are often the most significant in determining the right policy for individuals, and consulting with a financial advisor and insurance agent can help navigate the decision-making process.